The Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) is facing a total defeat in its self-proclaimed caliphate. Here, one would be able to get a sneak-peak into the bolting rise, cruel reign and its tenacious downfall.
In the anarchy following the 2003 US-led offensive of Iraq, an Al-Qaeda subsidiary establishes there, changing its name in 2006 to Islamic State in Iraq.
After Syria’s crisis starts, the group’s leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi assigns operatives there to establish a Syrian offshoot. Baghdadi breaks from Al-Qaeda and again naming his group ‘The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant’.
It’s the year of sudden success with seizing of Fallujah in Iraq and Raqqa in Syria starts at the turn of the year. ISIS captures Mosul and Tikrit in June and invades the border with Syria. At Mosul’s great Mosque, Baghdadi renames it ISIS and declares a caliphate.
Hence, begins a reign of terror. In Syria, it kills hundreds of members of the Sheitaat tribe. In Iraq, it kills thousands of Yazidis in Sinjar and compels over 7,000 women and girls into sexual slavery. It beheads Western hostages and even films it.
The US starts a coalition against the ISIS and conducts air strikes in order to prevent its progress.
Extremists in Libya behead Christians and vow allegiance to ISIS, followed by groups in other nations, but they stay operationally independent. Turkey starts an offensive against the ISIS and the YPG. In May, ISIS takes Ramadi in Iraq and the ancient desert town of Palmyra in Syria, but by the end of the year, it is on the back foot in both nations.
In August, the US backed Syrian Democratic Forces headed by the Kurdish YPG takes Manbij in Syria. Iraq reclaims Fallujah in June, the first town ISIS had seized during its initial success.
ISIS suffers catastrophic defeat. It not only loses Mosul to Iraqi forces in June, in fact Baghdad declares the end of the caliphate.
The Syrian government reclaims ISIS enclaves in Yarmouk and on the frontier with the Israeli occupied Golan Heights. The SDF forces moves further down the Euphrates and Iraqi forces take charge of the rest of the border.
ISIS is encircled in its last enclave on the Euphrates at the village of Baghouz.